Accessibility is the promotion of the functional independence of individuals through the elimination, to the greatest extent possible, of disadvantages resulting from a disability (United Nations, 1992).
Active Living encourages individuals to value regular physical activity and integrate it into their daily lives. Active living encourages individuals to ensure that the social and physical environment supports healthy and enriching personal choices.
Amputation is the removal of all or part of a limb due to injury or disease. Amputations can affect an individual’s balance and locomotion. Prosthesis for upper and lower limb amputations help enhance mobility and limb functioning. With prosthesis, some individuals can become more involved in physical activity programs.
Basketball see Wheelchair Basketball.
BCWSA is the British Columbia Wheelchair Sports Association who provides services and programs for wheelchair athletes throughout BC.
Cerebral Palsy is a non-progressive disorder of movement or posture due to damage to the brain before, during, or shortly after birth. While sensory or language disabilities may occur as a result of such brain damage, “cerebral palsy” refers only to movement and posture disorders.
Cervical (as it relates to the neck) refers to the portion of the human spine comprised of seven bony segments, typically referred to as C1 to C8, with cartilaginous discs between each vertebral body. The neck supports the weight of the head and protects the nerves that carry sensory and motor information from the brain down to the rest of the body.
Curling see Wheelchair Curling.
Demo Team is a group of wheelchair athletes who create awareness about wheelchair sports through school presentations focused on safety, ability rather than disability and the promotion of wheelchair sports.
Hand cycling is arm-powered cycling in which athletes use their arms to peddle instead of their legs.
Locomotor Movements are those in which the body’s location changes relative to fixed points on the ground. These movements include wheeling, walking, running, hopping, jumping, skipping, sliding, and climbing.
– brain trauma refers to acquired injury to the brain caused by an external force, resulting in the impairment of total or partial physical, psychosocial and/or cognitive functional abilities. Brain trauma may affect areas such as cognition, language, memory and motor abilities.
– developmental disability is an intellectual, physical or sensory impairment resulting in severe limitations in three of the follow- ing: self-care, speaking, learning, mobility, living independently, comprehension, decision making and financial independence.
– mental illness is another kind of disability often categorized under psychological disabilities.
Murderball was the original name for the sport of Wheelchair Rugby.
Muscular Dystrophy is a chronic, hereditary condition characterized by progressive muscular weakness and atrophy of the muscle fibres. Duchenne muscular dystrophy, the most common type, is a gender-linked recessive disorder that affects only males characterized by progressive muscle weak- ness, obesity, and muscle atrophy.
Paraplegia refers to the varying degrees of paralysis to the legs and the trunk. Arms are unaffected in this category. The ability to propel the wheelchair is affected by trunk balance and stability. The major factor between the classes of paraplegics is the evaluation of the abdominal and spinal muscles.
Poliomyelitis (Polio) is a viral infection of the motor cells in the spinal cord that leads to muscular paralysis, atrophy or both. The severity of the infection determines the extent of the neural damage and paralysis. Some muscles are completely hindered, while others are only weakened.
Quad Rugby see Wheelchair Rugby.
Quadriplegia refers to paralysis of all the leg and trunk muscles, and some of the arm muscles. The ability to propel the wheelchair is based on the degree of arm muscle strength, especially that of the triceps.
Rugby see Wheelchair Rugby.
Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine. In more serious cases, a rod is surgically inserted into the back. Scoliosis results when the spine is misaligned, in part by the relative strength and flexibility of the back muscles. It is one of three alignment disabilities.
Sensory Disability is a when an individual is unable to accurately interpret an outside stimulus. This may be in a form of blind- ness, deafness, severe vision impairment or severe hearing impairment.
Sledge Hockey was developed by Swedish national hockey players who after being injured in a plane crash, were determined to make some modifications to the game of hockey that allowed them to still play. The game is similar to ice hockey, with some equipment and rule modifications. Players are seated on a sledge with skate blades under it. The athletes propel themselves across the ice using modified hockey sticks that have picks on one end.
Soccer see Powersoccer.
Special Olympics is an organization providing individuals with an intellectual disability the opportunity to enhance their life and celebrate personal achieve- ments through positive sport experiences.
Spina Bifida is a buckling of the spine in which one or more of the vertebrae fail to completely close leaving an opening in the spine that leads to nerve damage. Spina bifida usually occurs early, before birth.
Spinal Cord Injuries typically originate in accidents. The degree of disability from a spinal-cord injury depends on where the injury occurred along the spinal cord. In general, the higher the injury is on the cord, the less function there is afterward.
Tennis see Wheelchair Tennis.
Wheelchair Rugby is a sport originally created for quadri- plegics and now allows athletes with only three limbs affected to play competitively. The game is played in a gymnasium and the object is to carry a ball over an opponent’s goal line.